GPS stands for Global Positioning System. It is a satellite radio navigation system built by the United States Department of Defense. Research on the system began in the 60s and the first GPS satellite was launched in 1978. It took a while for the entire system to come online but finally on April 27, 1995 it became fully operational. At first, the GPS network was only for military use but in the 80's the United States government authorized the general public to make use of it too.The GPS network is composed of:SatellitesEarth Monitoring StationsGPS receiversWhat is a GPS Satellite?There are currently 24 satellites orbiting the earth is 6 distinct trajectories. Each satellite completes two orbits around the earth each day, traveling at a speed of about 7,000 MPH. At the highest point in their orbit they are over 12,000 miles above the earth. From this height, the satellite signals can be received over a large percentage of the surface of the earth. A GPS unit works by receiving multiple satellite signals and calculating the receiver's position based on triangulation of the different signals. Accuracy is increased with each additional satellite signal that is received so the orbits of the satellites are set so that at most points on the earth there are at least 4 signals that can be received. Of course, this is in theory only since the landscape around you can block some or all of the GPS signals.What is a GPS Earth Monitoring Station?There are four unmanned monitoring stations in the US and one manned master station which is located in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The four unmanned stations relay position data from the satellites to the master station. The master station uses the relayed information to correct the position of the sat tiles and sends the corrected information back to the satellites. This synchronizes the data that each satellite transmits to your GPS receiver and ensures that your receiver is always working with accurate information.What is a GPS Receiver?GPS satellites transmit low power radio signals that can only be picked up if your GPS unit has a direct "line of sight" to the satellite. The signals can penetrate things like glass, plastic and clouds but not solid structures like buildings or rocks. A GPS unit works by triangulating your location based on the position of at least three satellites in the GPS system. It compares the time it takes to receive a signal from each of the satellites in range and calculates your location based on the data.If you are only able to pick up three satellite signals, your GPS unit can report your location in latitude and longitude. However, when the GPS unit picks up signals from at least four satellites it also calculates your altitude. Now it can report your trip distance, distance to a destination, travel speed and even your altitude if your GPS receiver features an altimeter.How accurate a GPS unit is depends on its ability to find and lock onto a satellites signal. As you might expect, you get what you pay for and the more expensive GPS units are generally more accurate. The best consumer units claim accuracy to within a few feet while the older or less expensive units can be off up to 30-40 feet or more. Where you plan to use your GPS receiver could determine if it's worth shelling out the extra money for increased accuracy. If you're using your GPS unit in flatter terrain with a good open view of the sky a less expensive unit could perform nearly as well as the top of the line receiver. However, if you plan to use your receiver in dense tree cover, while hiking in ravines or narrow valleys, or among tall buildings you'll gain much better accuracy with a more higher end GPS unit.Now you know the basics about how GPS works and can answer the question "What is GPS?".
Astute is a leading software product which varies in size and is able to scale down depending on what the business does and the size of it. One user can use this or an infinite number of users can use it, this all depends on the size of the company. The software can be fully customized to the businesses needs and can have integration with the Internet and eCommerce.Is todays competitive market and the speed in which things are changing you need a software package that will help you compete in the market as well as keeping all your data up to date and accurate. You need to be able to analyze data quickly as this can be the success or failure of a project and or job in some businesses.The functions of Astute provide a flexible, functionally rich and information solutions for your business which is accessed via Microsoft Windows and or by the Internet. Enterprise wide management software packages need to be able to integrate and utilize Internet technologies, this will help make the business successful in their designated market for the future. Not only internal users will use the management system but the companys customers and suppliers will be able to access this via the Internet if the Internet is integrated. Astute give you all of this and will help you gain maximum functionality and future flexibility.The Astute Financial Component enables full scalability of an enterprise and also helps complex issues become simple solutions due to the rapidly changing global environment. The features included in Astute provide greater efficiency and improved control of all cash flow.Some of the other features are: Multi-dimensional enterprise structure enables flexibility for organizations to develop and grow without being inhibited by their current enterprise hierarchy or system Multi-currency features allowing all posting, reporting and analysis by multiple base currencies A unified ledger design that ensures all accounts are always up to date and in balance Web deployment ensures lower cost of ownership and enhanced customer satisfaction delivering real business advantagesA review about Astute products is that the advantage of it being designed from scratch with the benefit of many man-years experience of other, older, systems. It has been specifically constructed to be flexible, yet intuitive to use.The Astute Supply Chain Software has been designed to feature a component based system that can be offered to most clients from different areas and different sized companies. The features in the supply chain management software could include customer relationship management capabilities as well as integrating products in the customer relationship management solution.Astute Financials and Supply Chain can be offered to software developers then onto third party clients at a cost. Astute can revolutionize the way in which enterprise-wide systems are utilized in the marketplace.Astute Financials and Supply Chain can be offered to software developers then onto third party clients at a cost. Astute can revolutionize the way in which enterprise-wide systems are utilized in the marketplace.
Recently I've had a good deal of people ask me about SSH connections, and how they can better secure them, and I've been shocked at the sheer number of people that still use keyboard-interactive password authentication to log into SSH daemons. This article will explain the use of SSH keys and OpenSSH options to speed up and secure your SSH connection.SSH optionsThere are a few useful options you can pass to OpenSSH to increase your verbosity, compress and speed up your ssh connection, and change your SSH cipher to something faster and more secure;'-v' switch. This option will allow you to see debug output for outgoing SSH connections. Specifying '-v' multiple times increases the verbosity level (maximum level 3).'-C' switch. This option compresses all of your SSH data. Passing this option to OpenSSH may speed things up dramatically on slow networks, but on high-speed networks it will only slow things down.'-c' switch. This option will allow you to change your cipher method. The default is 3des, which is a 3-way encryption method that is believed to be secure - however, blowfish is also available, which is a fast block cipher which also believed to be very secure and is far faster than 3des.For example, let's say I want to log in as user 'foo' to an ssh daemon on host 'example.com'. I want maximum verbosity level, I want to compress all my data, and I want to change my SSH cipher to blowfish. The command would look like this:ssh -vvv -C -c blowfish -l foo example.com(Note: the higher your verbosity level, the more text you will get on your terminal while OpenSSH goes through the process of logging in to the remote SSH daemon. Even specifying only one -v can get you a veritable flood of information. Fiddle around with -v until you find a debug level that you're comfortable with.)SSH keysOpenSSH supports a method of authentication far more secure than keyboard-interactive password authentication using a combination of public/private key cryptography. A pair of keys is generated, one on the remote machine to authenticate you and let you in. The other is a private key to match the key on the remote machine.To generate a pair of cryptographic keys, you would use the ssh-keygen(1) utility on both the machine you intend to log in to, and the machine you intend to log in from. For example;ssh-keygen -t rsaThe -t option specifies the type of key to be generated. Available options are dsa and rsa.Inputting this command on either of your UNIX machines should give you an output like this:$ ssh-keygen -t rsaGenerating public/private rsa key pair.Enter file in which to save the key (/home/example/.ssh/id_rsa):Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):Enter same passphrase again:Your identification has been saved in /home/example/.ssh/id_rsa.Your public key has been saved in /home/example/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.Setting a passphrase is highly recommended to maximize security. Good passphrases are between 10 and 30 characters long, and are not easily guessable in any way. If you do not enter a passphrase, you will be able to login to your remote system without entering any password on login.The next step is to authorize your keys on the remote machine you intend to log in to. You can do this using a file named authorized_keys on your target machine. Copy your ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub file onto your remote machine using scp(1)scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub example.com:.ssh/authorized_keysNow log in to your target machine using ssh(1) with a debug level of 1as previously shown;ssh -v -C -c blowfish -l foo example.comYou will see debug messages like so;debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey,keyboard-interactivedebug1: Next authentication method: publickeydebug1: Offering public key: /home/example/.ssh/id_rsadebug1: Server accepts key: pkalg ssh-dss blen 435debug1: read PEM private key done: type rsaYou should then be prompted for your key passphrase (if you entered one) and then let into the system. If you didn't enter a passphrase upon generating your public/private keys, you will be passed through without having to enter any. If you encounter errors, you should check the permissions of your ~/.ssh directories on both machines.If you wish to change your key passphrase at any time, you can do so by passing the -p flag to the ssh-keygen utility;ssh-keygen -p
Shopping for electronics has never been an easy task, and it is not likely to get easier anytime soon. Every step of the way, you will be faced with choices. What brand will you get? What model will you get? Where will you buy it? What sort of warranty will you buy? Whether you are buying a TV, an MP3 Player, a camcorder, or any other electronic device, you should always weigh your options carefully. Here are some of the things you need to consider in order to make a wise purchase of an electronic device.First, you need to decide which brand and model you are going to choose. Its a good idea to start on some sort of commerce site, so that you can narrow things down as good as possible. Amazon.com has a great system of navigation. Click on the category at the top, then you can narrow the product down based on the features, the price, the rating, and many other options. Once youve picked a few, you can see a list of all of the products that fit your requirements. You can also order them by certain things for example, put the cheapest at the top, or the highest rated at the top.After youve found a product that looks like a prospective purchase, you will want to find out more detailed information on it. Look it up on one of the more popular e-commerce web sites. You will be able to read very detailed specifications about the product. Depending on where you are and what product you are viewing, you will most likely see a section devoted to reviews. Whenever anyone buys the item, they have the option to come back and write their thoughts. This will give you 75% of the information you need to make your decision, since almost all of the reviews are from consumers just like you.
Data security has become a bigger concern as the information age goes into full swing. Computers are becoming more and more commonplace as versatile tools for a wide variety of tasks and uses. This has made digital storage increasingly the data storage format of choice, since digital information is easily accessed and processed by computers.This has led to a rise in interest in digital information and data storage systems. Apart from developments in hardware technology that allow bigger capacity devices with faster access times, security has also become a prime consideration. Most software and programs nowadays come equipped with varying levels of security options. For instance, it is now possible to protect almost any file with a password such that only those who can provide the correct password would be able to access the information within the file.However, these software security measures would not stand up to dedicated data extraction efforts, in particular those involving the actual physical hardware. Physically securing the hard drive (or other data storage device) under consideration may not always be possible or practical. Another way of ensuring that important data is not placed at risk is to wipe the disk.Simply deleting the contents of a hard disk is not enough to ensure that they are not recovered. In fact, there are software utilities that allow the recovery of deleted data. This possibility is because when a file is deleted, it is not actually overwritten or removed from the hard disk. Instead, a marker is just associated with the file to say that it has been deleted, and the space it occupies on the disk is marked available for use. This means that the data in the file remains on the disk for the knowledgeable hacker to extract and view.Wiping a disk, on the other hand, is a much more thorough process. In a disk wipe, all data to be wiped off is actually overwritten with random data. This eliminates almost entirely the traces that a normal deletion leaves behind, and makes recovery of data practically impossible. (In theory, it would still be possible to reconstruct the data lost after a hard disk wipe, but this would require high-powered microscopes and would proceed much too slowly to be useful!)Performing a disk wipe is facilitated by the many disk wipe programs available. There are many free options, as well as commercial software options, which may differ in terms of functionality and documentation. The majority of these are available online, which makes it quite easy to browse through and find the most appropriate program for the specific task. Some programs are designed for use on a single personal computer, while others may be designed for use on batches of computers.Confidential data that needs to be kept from being exposed may best be hidden by using a disk wipe. This simple additional security measure makes the recovery of deleted data nearly impossible. With the many disk wipe programs available, it is easier than ever to perform a disk wipe, even for casual users, making this a real data security option.